(Инструментоведение) Thomas D. Rossing (ed.) - The Science Of String Instruments [2010, PDF, ENG] 

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The Science Of String Instruments

Автор: Thomas D. Rossing (ed.)
Жанр/Тематика/Направление: Инструментоведение
Год выпуска: 2010
Издательство: Springer
ISBN: 978-1-4419-7110-4
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Изначально компьютерное (eBook)
Количество страниц: 480
Источник сканов: Сеть
Описание: Научная работа по акустике, устройству, истории струнных.

Содержание

Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 A Brief History of the Science of String Instruments  1.1.1 Bowed String Instruments  1.1.2 Lutes and Guitars  1.1.3 Harpsichords, Clavichords, and Dulcimers  1.1.4 Piano  1.1.5 Electric and Virtual String Instruments 1.2 Modal Analysis of String Instruments  1.2.1 Experimental Modal Testing  1.2.2 Mathematical Modal Analysis  1.2.3 Sound Field Analysis  1.2.4 Holographic Modal Analysis References
Chapter 2: Plucked Strings 2.1 Transverse Waves on a String 2.1.1 Impulsive Waves, Reflection, and Interference 2.1.2 Standing Waves 2.2 Plucked String: Time and Frequency Analyses 2.3 Force Exerted by the String 2.4 Plucking References
Chapter 3: Guitars and Lutes 3.1 Acoustic Guitars 3.1.1 The Guitar as a System of Coupled Vibrators 3.1.2 Force Exerted by the Vibrating String 3.1.3 Frequency Response of Guitars 3.2 Vibrations of the Guitar Body 3.2.1 Normal Modes of Vibration 3.2.2 Modes of Component Parts 3.2.3 Coupling of the Top Plate to the Air Cavity: Two-Oscillator Model 3.2.4 Coupling to the Back Plate: Three-Oscillator Model 3.2.5 Low-Frequency Resonances of a Guitar Body 3.2.6 Modal Shapes 3.3 String Forces 3.4 Sound Radiation 3.5 Quality 3.5.1 Influence of Design and Construction 3.5.2 The Bridge 3.5.3 Thickness of the Top Plate and Braces 3.5.4 Asymmetrical and Radial Bracing 3.6 A Family of Scaled Guitars 3.7 Synthetic Materials 3.8 Other Families of Guitars 3.9 Electric Guitars 3.9.1 Body Vibrations and Dead Spots 3.9.2 Electric Bass 3.10 Lutes 3.10.1 Acoustics of the European Short Lute 3.10.2 Acoustics of the Turkish Long-Necked Lute 3.11 Concluding Remarks References
Chapter 4: Portuguese Guitar 4.1 Origins 4.2 Types and Characteristics 4.3 Vibroacoustic Behavior 4.4 Subjective Acoustical Quality Evaluation 4.4.1 Objective Parameters 4.4.2 Listening Tests 4.4.3 Test Conditions 4.4.3.1 Subjective Parameters Used 4.4.3.2 Conditions of the Guitars 4.4.4 Test Procedure 4.5 Results 4.5.1 Subjective Tests 4.5.2 Objective Tests References
Chapter 5: Banjo 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Banjo Anatomy 5.3 Banjo Sound 5.4 Head Modes 5.5 Harmonics Analysis 5.6 Resonators 5.7 Bridges 5.8 Tone Rings, Rims, and Neck 5.9 Summary References
Chapter 6: Mandolin Family Instruments 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Types of Mandolins 6.2.1 Neapolitan Mandolins 6.2.2 Flatback Mandolins 6.2.3 Cylinderback Mandolins and Other Unique Designs 6.2.4 Archtop Mandolins, Oval Sound Hole 6.2.5 Archtop Mandolins, f-Holes 6.2.6 Mandolas, Octave Mandolins, and Mandocellos 6.3 Normal Modes of Vibration and Holographic Interferometry 6.4 Normal Mode Shapes in Mandolins 6.5 Normal Mode Frequencies in Different Types of Mandolins 6.6 Sustain in Mandolins 6.7 Other Mandolin Family Instruments: Normal Modes in Two Mandolas 6.8 Mandocellos 6.9 Summary and Conclusions References
Chapter 7: Psalteries and Zithers 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Influence of Stresses in Strings on the Instrument´s Shape 7.3 Plucking Stiffness, and Strength of a Plucked String 7.4 String Materials 7.5 Acoustical Study of Carved Baltic Psalteries 7.5.1 History of the Carved Baltic Psaltery 7.5.2 Playing Techniques 7.5.3 Body Resonances of Some Carved Baltic Psalteries 7.5.4 Coupling of Strings to Body Resonances 7.5.5 Experiments with Distribution of Sound Holes 7.5.6 Some Conclusions and Applications 7.5.7 Features of Proposed New Traditional-Style Designs 7.5.8 A More Radical Design from Finland 7.6 Zithers 7.6.1 Zithers Without Fretboard 7.6.2 Fretted (Alpine) Zithers 7.7 Hammered Dulcimers 7.8 Modernized Baltic Psalteries 7.8.1 Diatonically Tuned Versions 7.8.2 Chromatic Baltic Psalteries References
Chapter 8: Harpsichord and Clavichord 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The Harpsichord 8.2.1 General Design 8.2.2 Plucked Strings 8.2.3 Soundboard and Radiation 8.2.4 Acoustic Balance 8.2.5 Design Extensions 8.3 The Clavichord 8.3.1 General Design 8.3.2 String Excitation in the Clavichord 8.4 Keyboard Tuning 8.5 Conclusion References
Chapter 9: Harp 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Overview 9.2.1 Origins and Development 9.2.2 Structure 9.3 Strings 9.3.1 History 9.3.1.1 Diatonic Versus Chromatic Stringing 9.3.1.2 Sharping Mechanisms 9.3.2 Basic String Considerations 9.3.3 String Motion and Its Influence on the Sound Spectrum 9.3.4 String Motion and Temporal Development of the Sound 9.4 Soundboard and Soundbox 9.4.1 Evolution of the Soundboard 9.4.2 Vibrational Behavior of the Soundboard 9.4.3 Helmholtz and Pipe Resonances of the Soundbox 9.4.4 Vibroacoustic Behavior of the Soundbox 9.5 The Harp as a Whole 9.5.1 Strings and Soundbox 9.5.2 Sound Radiation 9.5.3 The Sound of the Harp 9.6 Conclusion References
Chapter 10: Burmese Arched Harp 10.1 History 10.2 Construction and Playing Techniques 10.3 Scales and Tunings 10.4 Measurements of Plucked Tones References
Chapter 11: Plucked String Instruments in Asia 11.1 Classification of Asian Musical Instruments Based on Construction Material 11.2 Japanese Satsuma Biwa 11.2.1 Structural Response 11.2.2 Sawari Mechanisms and Their Effects on High-Frequency Emphasis 11.2.3 Examples of Characteristic Sounds 11.2.4 Brief Comparison with the Chinese Pipa 11.3 Japanese Shamisen 11.3.1 Shamisen as an Overall String-Bridge-Membrane System 11.3.2 Sawari and Its Effect on the Tuning 11.4 Japanese Koto and Korean Gayageum 11.5 Concluding Remarks References
Chapter 12: Bowed Strings 12.1 Kinematics of the Bowed String 12.2 Dynamics of the Bowed String 12.3 Bowing to Achieve Anomalous Low Frequencies References
Chapter 13: Violin 13.1 History 13.2 Research 13.3 Evaluating Violins 13.4 Sound Analysis 13.5 Frequency Response 13.6 Tone Quality 13.6.1 Sizzle 13.6.2 Directional Tone Color 13.6.3 Projection 13.7 Playability 13.7.1 Helmholtz Motion 13.7.2 Bow Force Limits 13.7.3 Damping and Playability 13.8 Violin Body Vibrations 13.8.1 Normal Modes of Vibration 13.8.2 Vibrational Models 13.8.3 A Three-Dimensional Model of Vibration 13.8.4 Modal Analysis 13.8.5 What Modes Can a Maker Control? 13.9 Component Parts 13.9.1 Top and Back Plates 13.9.2 Tap Tones 13.9.3 The Mass of a Violin 13.9.4 Enclosed Air 13.9.5 Bridge 13.9.6 Ribs 13.9.7 Fingerboard 13.9.8 Bass bar and Soundpost 13.10 Measuring Sound Radiation 13.11 Low-Frequency Radiation 13.12 High-Frequency Radiation 13.13 Radiation Damping 13.14 Electric and Virtual Violins References
Chapter 14: Cello 14.1 The Cello 14.2 Modal Analysis of Cellos 14.2.1 Frequency Response 14.2.2 Modes of Vibration 14.2.3 Observing the Modes 14.2.4 Labeling the Resonances 14.3 Modes of Component Parts 14.3.1 Cello Plate Modes 14.3.2 Cello Air Cavity Modes 14.4 Cello Body Modes 14.4.1 Comparison with Violin Resonances 14.5 Sound Spectra of the Cello 14.6 Mobility (Admittance) at the Bridge 14.7 The ``New Violin Family´´ 14.8 Conclusion References
Chapter 15: Double Bass 15.1 Modes of Vibration 15.1.1 The Modes in Playing 15.1.2 Mobility Curves and Instrument Identity 15.2 The Double Bass Compared to the Violin and Cello 15.3 Double Basses of Different Quality 15.4 The Violin Octet 15.5 The Player´s Support 15.6 Scaling 15.7 Body Size and Radiated Sound 15.8 Stage Risers 15.9 Directional Radiation 15.10 Further Reading References
Chapter 16: Bows, Strings, and Bowing 16.1 The Bow 16.1.1 Effect of Camber on Transverse Hair Stiffness 16.1.2 Wood 16.1.3 Tonal Quality 16.1.4 Effect of Hair Elasticity and Surface Roughness 16.1.5 Rosin/Friction 16.2 Strings 16.2.1 The Concept of Wave Resistance or Wave Impedance 16.2.2 Tension 16.2.3 Damping 16.2.4 Torsion 16.3 Bowing Techniques 16.3.1 The Main Three Bowing Parameters 16.3.2 Flautando 16.3.3 Harmonics 16.3.4 Harmonics and Intonation 16.3.5 Double Stops 16.3.6 Tone Onsets, Attacks 16.3.7 Détaché 16.3.8 Martelé 16.3.9 Light Bowing 16.3.10 Spiccato/Sautillé/Ricochet 16.3.11 Bouncing Rate 16.3.12 Parameters That Affect the String´s Spectrum References
Chapter 17: Viols and Other Historic Bowed String Instruments 17.1 Medieval Bowed String Instruments 17.1.1 Medieval Fiddles 17.1.2 Rebecs 17.1.3 Acoustics of Medieval Bowed String Instruments 17.1.3.1 Acoustical Properties of the Medieval Fiddle 17.1.3.2 Acoustical Properties of the Rebec 17.2 Renaissance Viols 17.2.1 The Development of the Renaissance Viol 17.2.2 Acoustics of Renaissance Viols 17.3 Baroque Viols 17.3.1 Development of the Baroque Viol 17.3.2 Acoustics of the Baroque Viol 17.3.2.1 The Baroque Treble Viol 17.3.2.2 The Baroque Tenor Viol 17.3.2.3 The Baroque Bass Viol References
Chapter 18: The Hutchins-Schelleng Violin Octet After 50 Years 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Brief Octet History 18.2.1 Identification of Important Resonances 18.3 What Do We Know Now? 18.3.1 Summary of Octet-Related Developments, 1964-2007 18.3.2 How Bowed-String Instruments Radiate 18.3.3 Where Do Materials Come in? 18.3.4 A1 Radiation in the B1 Region 18.4 Scaling Basics 18.4.1 Scaling Assumptions 18.4.2 The Practicalities 18.4.3 Flat Plate Scaling Equations 18.4.4 Important A0 Scaling Equation Modification 18.4.5 Similarity of Shape 18.5 Modal and Acoustical Analyses 18.5.1 Modal and Acoustical Analyses of the Octet 18.5.2 A0 and A1: Coupling 18.5.3 Wall Compliance and Cavity Mode Frequencies 18.5.4 Rib Heights and Pressure Ratios 18.5.5 Clarifying A1 Status 18.5.6 Fat Bottoms, Wall Compliance, and Pressure Ratios 18.6 Future of the Violin Octet 18.7 Conclusions References
Chapter 19: Hammered Strings 19.1 Dynamics of the Hammer-String Interaction 19.2 Piano Hammers 19.3 String Excitation by a Piano Hammer 19.4 Hammer Position on the String 19.5 String Excitation in a Hammered Dulcimer References
Chapter 20: Some Remarks on the Acoustics of the Piano 20.1 Introduction 20.2 History of the Instrument 20.3 Overall Design 20.4 Vibrating Strings 20.5 The Hammers 20.6 The Soundboard as a Speaker 20.7 How We Perceive Piano Tones 20.8 Modeling of the Piano 20.9 Lessons References
Chapter 21: Hammered Dulcimer 21.1 History 21.2 The Basic Instrument 21.3 Inharmonicity and Scaling 21.4 Lateral Stability 21.5 Instrument Warp 21.6 Tuning Stability 21.6.1 Tuning Stability: Temperature 21.6.2 Tuning Stability: Humidity 21.6.3 String-Bridge Friction 21.7 The Percussive Sound: Hammer and String Interaction 21.8 Hammers and Course Spacing 21.9 String Coupling and Resonance Time 21.10 Sound Board and Body Modes 21.11 Sound Board Materials, Back Plates, and Design 21.12 Bridges, Bridge Caps, and Bridge Vibrations 21.13 Pin Blocks, Pins, and Hitch Pins 21.14 Sound Radiation Patterns 21.15 Unimportant Characteristics: Sound Holes, Special Finishes, Peglegs, and Perfect Fifths References
Chapter 22: Electric Guitar and Violin 22.1 Historical Background 22.2 The Electric Guitar 22.3 The Electric Violin 22.4 Acoustic, Magnetic, and Piezoelectric Pickups 22.4.1 Acoustic Pickups 22.4.2 Magnetic Pickups 22.4.3 Special Sound Effects 22.4.4 Piezoelectric Pickups 22.4.5 Other Types of Pickups 22.5 The Electric Violin as a Research Tool 22.5.1 Multiresonant Filter Characteristics 22.5.2 Sound Perception and Acoustical Properties 22.5.3 Real-Time Synthesis of Cremonese Instruments References
Chapter 23: Virtual String Synthesis 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Nomenclature 23.2.1 Digital Signals 23.2.1.1 Sampling 23.2.1.2 Sum of Sinusoids 23.2.2 Digital Filtering 23.3 Elements of Stringed Instruments 23.3.1 Vibrating String 23.3.1.1 D´Alembert´s Wave Equation 23.3.1.2 The Delay Line 23.3.1.3 Digital Waveguide Models 23.3.1.4 Natural Decay of the String 23.3.1.5 Modeling Two Planes of Vibration 23.3.1.6 Varying the Digital Waveguide 23.3.2 Plucking the String 23.3.2.1 Theoretical Plucks 23.3.2.2 Complexities of Real Plucks 23.3.3 Body Resonance 23.3.3.1 Driving-Point Admittance 23.3.3.2 Filtering with the Driving-Point Admittance 23.3.3.3 Bidirectional Interaction 23.3.3.4 String-Body Scattering Junction 23.3.4 Pressure Radiation 23.4 Measurements 23.4.1 String Vibration 23.4.2 Bridge Impedance 23.4.3 Body Vibration 23.4.4 Pressure Radiation 23.5 Parameter Estimation 23.5.1 Short-Time Fourier Transform 23.5.2 Excitation 23.5.2.1 The Statistical Spectral Interpolation Method 23.5.3 String 23.5.3.1 Loop Filter Estimation 23.5.4 Body Resonator 23.5.4.1 Low-Order Filter Implementations 23.5.5 Radiated Sound Pressure 23.5.5.1 Low-Order Filter Implementations 23.5.5.2 Combining and Interpolating Between Measurements 23.6 Summary and Conclusion ReferencesIndex

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